German Word List

Our goal is to not be just another online dictionary, we hope to offer explanations of certain terms to help you better understand the various terms you may come across in your genealogical research. If you have something to offer or see an error, then please contact us.

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German
English
A. = Amt, Amtsbezirkgovernment office, official district
a.D. = außer Dienstformerly employed, retired
A.G. = Amtsgerichtlower court, county court
a/d = an der, auf deron the, by the (followed by the name of a river or other geographical feature)
a/n = am Neckaron the "neckar" river, change the name to be that of the river/water
Aalrep, Ahlrep eel fisherman (who uses an Aalreif to catch them)
abfrom, since
Abbauertenant farmer on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm (usually a second son)
Abdeckerskinner
Abendmahlgastcommunicant
aberbut
abgestorbendeceased
Abnahmemannretired farmer on life estate
Abschiedsmannman retired on life estate
Abstreiferrenderer; knacker; flayer; roof-uncoverer
Abt. = Abteilungdepartment
Ackerknechtfarm hand (in service to the farmer)
Ackermannhusbandman, small farmer, farmer (in service to the lord of the manor)
adän. = altdänischOld Danish
Adelgentry, nobleman
Adeliger Edelmannnobleman
Ader, Aderlassersurgeon, barber who did bloodletting from veins
aengl. = altenglischOld English
afries. = altfriesischOld Frisian
afrz. or afranz. = altfranzösischOld French
ahd. = althochdeutschOld High German
Ahnenancestors
Ahnentafelpedigree chart
Akadem. Gradacademic graduate
Aktendocuments
alleall
allhierin this place
altold
Altbürgerfull citizen
Altbürgermeisterformer mayor
altd. = altdeutschOld German
Alterage
ältesteldest
Altwendertailor or old clothes merchant
Amman, Ammannbailiff, magistrate
Amtmannmagistrate, provost, warden
Amtsknechtmessenger, servant
Amtsverwalteradministrator
Anbauer, Bauerpeasant
and. = altniederdeutschOld Low German
andereother, next
Angeberinformant
angeblichalleged, assumed
Anh. = Anhaltduchy
Anmerkungen, Bemerkungenremarks
Ansiedl. = Ansiedlersettler
Anspännera farmer who possesses draught-cattle
Anstreicherpainter
Anwaltlawyer, guardian
apoln. = altpolnischOld Polish
Apothekerpharmacist
apreuß. = altpreußischOld Prussian
Arb. = Arbeiterlaborer, worker
Archivarchive
Archivararchivist
Armerpoor, beggar
aruss. = altrussischOld Russian
Arztphysician
Aschenbrenner charcoal maker (for soap-making)
Asenmacherframe-maker, axle maker
aslaw. = altslawischOld Slavic
auchalso, too
Auenhaeuslerfree villager with small house and garden and some livestock who usually works as a day laborer; cottager
Auermacherclock maker
aufon, upon, at
Aufenthaltsortresidence
Aufgebotpublication of banns
Aufnahmebuchbook listing debts
Aufnahmelandcountry to which one immigrated
Aufsehersupervisor
ausfrom, out of
Ausländerforeigner
außen, äußere, aussenoutside
außerehelich, spur. = spurius, spuria, unehel. = unehelich, Hurenkindillegitimate
Auswandereremigrant
Auswanderer, Auswanderungemigrant, emigration
Ausweisidentification document
Auszugextract
B. = Bürger, burghercitizen, citizens
B. or Bez. = Bezirk, Distriktdistrict
BA. = Bezirksamtdistrict office
Bäcker, Baeckerbaker
BäckergeselleBaker, journeyman
Backhausmanncottager
Backmannbaker
Badeort, Bd. = Badspa, health resort
Baderbarber, surgeon
Bankier, Wechslerbanker, money changer
Barbierbarber
Baronruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor
Bartscherebarber
Bauerfarmer on a full sized farm, during serfdom it meant peasant
Baumeistermaster builder, construction supervisor, architect
Baumgärtnertree nurseryman; forester
BayernBavaria
Bd. = Bandvolume
Beamterofficial, registrar
Beamterpublic official
Bed. = Bedeutungimportance; meaning; significance
Beerdigungen, beg. = begraben, Begräbnisse, bestattet, beerdigt, vergrabenBurial
beglaubigtcertified, attested
Beichteconfession
beideboth
Beisaßlay assessor
Bekehrungconversion
Belegeproof, documentation
Berateradviser or counselor
Berghill, mountain
Bergmannminer
Berufoccupation, profession
bes. = besondersespecially, particularly
Beschreibungdescription
Besemerbroom maker or seller
Besenbinderbroom maker or seller
Besitzerowner, possessor, proprietor
bestätigtconfirmed, verified
betr. = betreffendconcerning, regarding, as to
Betriebsleitermanager, superintendent of merchant business
Bettlerbeggar
Bevölkerungsregisterpopulation register
bevorstehendpreviously mentioned
Bhf. = Bahnhofrailroad station
Bierbrauerbeer brewer
Biersiederbeer distiller
Bildhauersculptor
Bildschnitzerwood carver
Bindercooper
Biographiebiography
Bischofbishop
BistumBishopric; Diocese
Bkdo. = Bezirkskommandomilitary district command
Bleicherbleacher
Bleigiesser/nlead smelter
BN = Berufsnameoccupational name
Böhmen und MährenBohemia-Moravia
Bootsmannbargeman, boatman
Borngräberwell digger
Botemessenger
Böttchercooper
Brauerbrewer
BraunschweigBrunswick
Briefbotemailman
Briefträgermail carrier
Brückebridge
Brückenzöllnerbridge toll collector
Brunnenmeistersupervisor of well construction
Bub, Knabeboy
Bubenmeisterschool teacher
Buchbook
Buchbinderbook binder
Buchdruckerprinter, typographer
Buchhalterbookkeeper
Buchhändlerbook dealer, book seller
Büchsenmacherrifle maker, gunsmith
Büchsenschmied, Büchsenschmidgunsmith
Büdner, Buednercottager
bulg. = bulgarischBulgarian
Burgcastle, fortress
Bürge, Buergesponsor, guarantor
Bürgerbuchcitizen register
Bürgermeistermayor
Burgmanncastle steward
Büttel, Buettelcourt official, jailer
Büttner, Buettnercooper
bz. or bzw. = beziehungsweiseor, respectively
ca. = circa, ungefährabout, approx
Caffamachersatin or velvet weaver
Chirugsurgeon
Clausurmacherclasp maker
Colonistsettler, tenant farmer
copulierento marry
Cossat(e)cottager with little land
d. = der, dem, des, die, dasthe
D. = Dorfvillage
d. h. = das heißtthat is; that's called
Dachdeckerroof tiler, thatcher
dän = DänischDanish
das. = daselbstresiding in this place, there, the previously mentioned place
Datumdate
Dechant, Dekandean (church or university)
Dekanatdeanery
derthe, of the
derselbethe same, same as above
Dienerservant
Dienerinmaid servant
dieserthis, these
Domänedomain
Doppelnamendouble names (hyphenated names)
dortthere
Drechslerturner, thresher
dt. = DeutschGerman
Duplikatduplicate record
durchthrough
Durchreisenderstranger, transient
E. = Einwohner, inwohnerresidents, population, inhabitant
ebendaat the same place
Ebenistcabinet maker
Eger, Eggerharrower, farmer who used a harrow plow
ehemarried (does not describe the event but the fact that the people are married)
Ehebrecher, Ehebruchadulterer
Ehehindernishinderance to marriage
ehel. = ehelich, eheleiblichlegitimate
Eheleute, Ehepaar, Getrautemarried couple
ehelich geboren am born in lawful wedlock on
Ehescheidung, geschieden, Scheidungdivorce
Eheschließung, Eheschliessungmarriage
Eheverkündigungenmarriage announcement
Eheversprechen, Eheverspruch, verl. = verlobtengagement
Eigentümermale property owner
Einbürgerungnaturalization
einh., einhl = einheimischnative
Einliegerlandless farm laborer, agricultural odd-job worker, who usually rents
living space from a farmer
Einnehmercollector
Einsenderinformant
Eintrag, Eintragungentry
Einwandererimmigrant
Einwanderungimmigration
Einwilligungpermission
einzigeonly
Eis. = Eisenbahnrailroad, train
Eisengiesseriron founder
Eisenhändleriron merchant
Eisenschmied, Eisenschmidblack smith
Elsass-Lothringen, Elsaß-LothringenAlsace-Lorraine
Elsass, ElsaßAlsace
Elternparents
engl. = englischEnglish
epod., eod. = eodemthe same
erhe
Erbenheirs
Erbschaftinheritance
erhaltenreceived, receive
erklärtdeclared
Erlassungdispensation, permission
Ermächtigungauthorization
err. = errechnetapproximated
erschienappeared
erstgeborenfirstborn
ErzbistumArchbishopric
erzeugen, erzeugtbeget
Erzgraberore miner
Erziehereducator
esit
evg., Ev., ev. = Evangelische, evangelischEvangelical (Lutheran)
f. = femininfemale
Fabrikantmanufacturer; factory owner, mill owner
Fahnenträgerflag bearer
Fahnrich, Fähnrichflag bearer (military)
Fahrensmannseaman, seafarer
Faktormanager, superintendent (merchant)
Familiefamily
Familienbuch entries for a family in the Standesamtregister
Familienbuch, Familienregister, Geschlechterbücherfamily register, lineage books
Familienforschunggenealogical research
Familienstand marital status
Färberdyer
Faßbinder, Fassbendercooper
Fauthbailiff, constable, sheriff
Fayencenhändlerporcelain merchant
Fehlgeburtmiscarriage
Feilenhauerfile maker
Feldhueterfield watchman, field warden
Feldmessersurveyor, one who measures areas of land as an occupation
Feldreiterpoliceman
Festtagfeast day, festival day, holy day
Festungfortress
Feuerwerkerexplosives expert, maker of fireworks
Findlingfoundling
finn. = finnischFinnish
Firmungconfirmation
Fischerfisherman
Fl. = Florin, Guldencurrency
Flaschenmacherbottle maker
Fleischbeschauermeat inspector
Fleischerbutcher
Fleischhauerbutcher
Flickschneidermending tailor
Flösserraftsman
Flue = Fluechtling, Flüchtlingfugitive, refugee, deserter
Fluß, flussriver
FN = Familiennamesurname, family name, last name
folgendefollowing, next
Folterknechtexecutioner, torturer
Forstforest
Försterforester
Fourierquartermaster
FrankenFranconia
FrankreichFrance
FräuleinMiss, unmarried woman
Freibauerfree farmer with only small rent payments
Freiherrruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor
fremdforeign, strange
Fremderstranger
Friedhofcemetary
Friseurbarber, hair dresser
früher, ehemalsformer, formerly
frz. (franz) = FranzösischFrench
Fuhrmanncoachman, wagoner
fürfor
Fürstprince
Fürstprince
Fürstenhoffroyal court
Fürstentumprincipality
Fürstentumprincipality
G. = Gerichtcourt
Gadenfrau small-time merchant, shop owner (fem.)
Gadenmann small-time merchant, shop owner (masc.)
Gaedemer, Gädemermerchant with a booth
Gardistguardsman
Gärtnergardener
Gastwirt; Gastwirthinnkeeper, host, landlord
Gauklertraveling entertainer, juggler, puppet-player
geb. = geborenmaiden name
geben, gabgiven, gave
Gebietregion, area, zone
Gebührenfees
Geburt, Geburten, Geburtsregister, Geborene, geborenBirth
Geburtsdatum birth date
Geburtshelfer medical attendant at birth
Geburtsort, Heimatsort, Herkunftsortplace of birth
Geburtsschein, Geburtsurkundebirth certificate
gef. = gefallen im Kriegfallen in war
gegenagainst, towards
gehörtbelongs (to)
Gehusterolder (established) farmhand
Geiseler cattle merchant; dealer in goats, pigs, other small livestock; sometimes also a butcher
Geistlicherclergyman
Geldmoney
Geldeinnehmermoney collector
Gem. or Gde. = Gemeindecommunity, municipality, parish, town
Gemeindedienercommunity servant, servant of the mayor
Gemeindemannvillage official, village resident
Gemeindsmanncitizen with full rights
Gemüsegärtnermarket gardner, vegetable gardner
Gemüsehändlergreen grocer, vegetable grocer
genanntnamed, alias, called
Genealogiegenealogy
GenfGeneva
Gerbertanner
Gerichtsbeisitzerassessor of a town-court, associate judge
Gerichtsdienerservant in the court (under bailiff)
Gerichtsmannjuryman
Gerichtsschreibercourt clerk, court reporter
Gerichtsverwandtermember of the judicial court
Gerichtsverwandtermember of the judicial court
gesagtsaid, stated
Geschichtehistory
Geschlechtgender, sex, lineage
Geschlechtsnamefamily name, surname
Geschwistersiblings, brothers and sisters
Gesellejourneyman
Gesellschaftsociety, group
Gesetzlaw
gesetzlichlegal
gest. = gestorben, Tote, Tod, tot, sterben, starb, verstorben, Sterbefalldeath
gesternyesterday
get. = getauft, ren. = renatus, renatabaptized, christened
getr. = getraut, geheiratet, verh. = verheiratet, verehelichtmarried
Getrautethe one getting married
Gewänder, Gewaenderdealer in fine cloth
Gewerbetrade, occupation
Gewürzkrämer, Gewuerzkraemergrocer, dealer in spices
Gießer, Giesserfounder, caster, molder
Gildeguild
Gläser, Glaeserglazier
Glasmalerpainter on glass
Glaubebelief, faith
gleichsame, alike, similar, right away
Glöckner, Gloecknerbell-ringer, sexton
Gloeckengiesser, Glöckengießerbell founder
Goldschmiedgoldsmith
Gr. = GroßGreat (part of place name), big, large
Grafcount (nobleman), earl
Gräfincountess
Grafschaft, Kreiscounty
Greisold man
Grenadierinfantryman
Grhz. = Gross-Herzog, Großherzog, Gh., GhgGrand Duke
Grobschmiedblacksmith
großjährig, volljährigof age
Großneffegreat-nephew
Großnichtegreat-niece
Grundbuchland register
Gurspachterlessee of estate
Gürtlermaker of straps and belts, brass worker
Gutproperty, estate
gutgood
Gutspächtertennant farmers
Gv = Gerichtsverwandtermember of the local court
H-Nr = Haus Nummer, Haus #house number in the town
habento have
halbhalf
Halbbauerfarmer on a half-sized farm (15 morgen), small farmer
Halbmeierfarmer on a half-sized farm (15 morgen), small farmer
Hammerschmidblacksmith
Händlertrader, merchant, peddler
Handschuhmacherglove maker
Handwerkercraftsman, artisan
Hauercutter, miner
häuf. = häufigfrequently, widespread
Haushouse
Hausdienerdomestic servant, porter
Hausfrauhousewife
Hausgenossehouse mate
Hausiererpeddler
Häuslercottager, landless laborer
Hausmädchenhousemaid
Hausmeistercaretaker
HausN = HausnameHousehold name
hdschr. = handschriftlichhandwritten, in writing
Hebamme, Wehmuttermidwife
hebr. = hebräischHebrew
Hegergame warden
Heilquellespa, bath
Heimathome, native place, homeland
Heimatschein, Wohnungdomicile or residency certificate
heir. = Heiratento marry
Heiratsantragmarriage intentions
Heiratsdatum date of marriage
Heiratskontraktmarriage contracts
Heiratsprotokollemarriage records
Heiratsscheinmarriage certificate
heißt, heisstis named
Heizerstoker, someone who tended to the furnace on a steamship or steam locomotive, a boilerman
Hektarhectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres)
Hemdenmacher, Hemdmachershirt maker
Henkerexecutioner, torturer, hangman
Heraldik, Wappenkundeheraldry
Herrsch. = Herrschaftmanor, estate, domain
Herzogduke
HerzoginDuchess
HessenHesse
Heuerlinghireling (day laborer); tenant, renter
heutetoday
Hg. = Herausgeberpublisher; editor
hg. = herausgegebenpublished; edited
hierhere
hiesiger Ortthis place
Hilfsgeistlicherassistant clergyman
Hinterbliebenesurvivors
hinterlassensurviving, left behind
HinterpommernEastern Pomerania
Hirt(e)herdsman, shepherd (also pastor)
Hirtinherder, (female)
hl. = heiligholy
HlN or Heil. N. = HeiligennameSaint's name
HN or Herk. N. = Herkunftsnamea name derived from origin (background, place, country, ethnicity)
hochhigh
HochdeutschHigh German; standard German
Hochzeitwedding
Hofcourtyard, farm, yard, estate
Hofdamelady in waiting
HofN = Hofnamefarm or estate name; In rural areas it is/was common that farmers are/were known by the traditional name of their Hof (farm or estate); Many surnames are in fact derived from such Hofnamen, but in some instances, the Hofname tradition survived alongside the official surname. In cases where the surname and Hofname are/were not identical (usually because there was no male heir at some point in the family history) they are joined in official documents by genannt (abbr. gen.), e.g. Amann gen. Behmann.
Hofnarrcourt jester
hold. or holl. = holländischDutch
Holzhändlerlumber merchant
Holzhauerwood cutter
Hopfenbauer, Höpfnerhops farmer
Hornisthorn player
Hptm. = Hauptmanncaptain (military)
Hr. = Herrmaster, mister, lord, gentleman; when used before a name is usually indicated a social status
Hüfner, huefnera farmer who owns 1 Hufe of Land. 1 Hufe of Land is approx 30 acres. In general you can say, 1 Hufe was sufficient land where a family can live on
Hufschmiedfarrier (a craftsman who trims and shoes horses' hooves)
Hügel, huegelhill
hunderthundred
Hutmacher, Hutmacherinhat maker
Hzt. = Herzogtumduchy
i. a. or i. Allg. = im allgemeinenin general, generally
i. d. R. = in der Regelusually; as a rule
i. J. = im Jahrein (the year)
ihr, ihr-their, her
imin the
Imkerbeekeeper
immeralways
inin, at
Inhaltcontent(s)
innerhalbinside of
Innungguild
insges. = insgesamtaltogether; in all
Instmann, Justmanntenant farmer
istis
J = Jahre altyears old
Jagdgenossehunting assistant/companion
Jägerhunter, rifleman in the military
Jahryear
Jahrestaganniversary
jährlichannual, yearly
Jährmannferryman
Jahrzehntdecade
jeder (jede, jedes)each, every
Jgfr. = Jungfrau, Jungfermaiden, virgin, unmarried woman
Jh. = Jahrhundertcentury
jüdisch, Jude(n), israelitisch, jued = JuedischJewish
Junggeselle, Jünglingbachelor
K = Konfirmation, Firmungconfirmation
K.B. = Kirchenbuch, Pfarrbuchchurch book
K.K. = kaiserlich königlichroyal imperial
Kalkbrennerlimeburner (Burned limestone (calcium carbonate) in kilns to produce lime for farmers, quicklime for making mortar and for tanneries to remove hair from hides)
Kammerdienerbutler, valet
Kämmerer chamberlain, treasurer
Kammerfrau, Kammerherrlady-in-waiting
Kannengiesserpewterer, a manufacturer of pewterware
Kantorchoirmaster, organist
Kanzleibeamter chancery clerk, clerical aide
Kaplan chaplain
Kärchercarter, drayman (A drayman was historically the driver of a dray, a low, flat-bed wagon without sides, pulled generally by horses or mules that were used for transport of all kinds of goods)
KärntenCarinthia
Karrercarter, drayman (A drayman was historically the driver of a dray, a low, flat-bed wagon without sides, pulled generally by horses or mules that were used for transport of all kinds of goods)
Kärrnercarter, drayman (A drayman was historically the driver of a dray, a low, flat-bed wagon without sides, pulled generally by horses or mules that were used for transport of all kinds of goods)
Karte, Landkartemap
Karteicard index
Kath. = katholischCatholic
Käthner, Kaethner, Kätner, Kaetner, Kossat, Kossät, Kossathcottager; had a small house with a small piece of land. Most of them would also have had a secondary profession like aday laborer or craftsman; They usually had a plot of land of between an eighth and a half an oxgang (Hufe)
Kaufmannmerchant, trades-man
keinno, not any, none
Kellerwine steward; cellar, basement
Kellereiverwalteradministrator of the winecellar
Kellermeister keeper of wine cellar
Kellnerwaiter, receiver of revenues; steward
Kerkermeister jailer
Kerzenzieher chandler, producer of wax candles, candlemaker
Kesslerkettlemaker, boilermaker, coppersmith
Kettenschmied chainsmith
KH. = Knecht servant
Kiefer, Küferbarrel maker
Kirchechurch
Kirchenältesterchurch elder
Kirchengemeinde congregation
Kirchenpflegerchurchwarden, church caretaker; term for a person who is a member of the church administration in the management of the assets of a parish (once called a Heiligenpfleger)
Kirchenschöffechurch alderman
Kirchenvorsteherchurchwarden
kirchlich getraut married in church
Kirchspielparish
Kistenmacher crate maker
kleinlittle
Knappea young man, squire (historically it was a young nobleman)
Knechta young man servant (especially of a lower class, employed in coarse hard work)
Kölncity of Cologne
Kommunikantcommunicant
Kommunioncommunion
König, Koenigking
Königlich, Koeniglichroyal
Königreich, Koenigreichkingdom
kop. = Kopulationmarriage
Kriegwar
Kröger, kroeger, Krogmanninnkeeper
Krs., Kr. = Kreisdistrict
Kt. = KantonCanton (territorial/administrative subdivision in some countries)
Kuhhirte, Kühhirtcowherd
Künstlernameartist name; Pseudonym
Kurortspa
Kusinefemale cousin
kverm. = kriegsvermisstmissing in the war
l. = linksleft (direction)
Landland, country
lassento let, leave, allow, give, grant, concede
lat. = lateinisch(e)Latin
lebendigliving
led. = ledigsingle,unmarried
legitimiert, legitimirenmade legitimate, legitimized
Leichecorpse, body
Lenzspring (season)
letzte Ölung, letzte Salbunglast rites
Letzterlatter, last
letzter Willelast will
lit. = litauischLithuanian
Luth. = Lutherisch, ProtestantLutheran, Protestant
Lw. = Landwirta farmer, like a skilled tradesman, they had training
m. = maskulinmasculine; male
Mägdlein, Mädchen, Mädelgirl, little girl, damsel
männl. = männlichmale
Marktmarket, market-town (burough)
masch. = maschinenschriftlichtyped
Matrikelregister (like in churchbook, parish register etc)
MennonitenMennonites
Militärmilitary
minderjährigunderaged, minor
mitwith, via, by
Mitgliedmember
Mo. = Monatmonth
morgenmorning (time of day)
Morgen (morgen)measure of land, 0.6 to 0.9 acres; The measurement of a morgen varied from place to place; It's said to have originally meant the amount of land that could be plowed in one morning
mündlichverbal, verbally
N = Nord, Nordennorth
n. = nachwent to
n. = nachto, after, according to
n. u. Z. = nach unserer ZeitrechnungAnno Domini
N.N = (Nomen Nescio) Name unbekanntname not known
Nachbarneighbor
Nachbarschaftneighborhood, vicinity
nachgelassensurviving as in the surviving spouse
Nachlaßestate, inheritance
nachnamesurname
nächst(e)next
Nachtnight
nat. = natus, nata, geb. = geborenborn
Nbf. = Nebenformvariant
ndld (ndl.; nl.) = niederländischDutch
nebennext to
Nebenfraumistress, kept woman, secondary wife
neunew
Nichtnot
nichtsnothing
nienever
niederlower
niederdeutschLow German
nochstill
noch lebendestill living
noch nichtnot yet
Notizennotices
Nottaufeemergency baptism
Nummernumber
nuronly
NürnbergNuremberg
O = Osteneast
ö. = östlicheastern; easterly; eastward
o. Ä. = oder Ähnliche(s)or similar
o. J. = ohne Jahrundated; without a year
O.A. = Oberamtgoverning district office
oberupper, over
OberfrankenUpper Franconia
OberpfalzUpper Palatinate
Oberrheinische TiefebeneUpper Rhine valley
od. = oderor
öffentlich bekanntmachenmake known publicly
oftoften
ohnewithout
ON = Ortsnameplace name
Ortplace, town
Ort der Geburt place of birth
Ortslexikongazetteer
österr. = österreichischAustrian
ÖsterreichAustria
PD = (Perillustris Dominus)a Latin term; highly respected, of high social status, esteemed man
PfalzThe Palatinate
Pfarramtparish office, Rectory
Pfarreiparish
Pflegekindfoster child
Pflegesohnfoster son
Pflegetochterfoster daughter
Platzplace (location)
poln. = PolnischPolish
PreußischPrussian
Proklamationen, Aufgebot, Verkündigungenmarriage banns
prot. = protestantischProtestant
Provinzprovince
r. = rechtsright
R. = Ruhestandretired
Rackerrenderer, skinner, flayer
Rathauscity hall, city hall
RE = Rentenempfängerpensioner
Rechnungaccount; bill
rechtgläubigorthodox
Ref. = ReformiertReformed (evangelical)
Reg.-Bez. = Regierungsbezirkadministrative area (a political jurisdiction)
Registerregister (a book or list)
Reichempire; kingdom
RheinlandRhineland
RheinpfalzRhineland-Palatinate; Rhine Palatinate; Rhenish Palatinate
RitterKnight
rk. = römisch katholischRoman Catholic
RN = Rufnamemany times a child is given multiple names, the one intended for everyday use is known as the Rufname
Rtn. = Rentnerretired person, pensioner
russ. = RussischRussian
Rv. = Rat(h)sverwandtermember of the local town council
S. = Seitepage
s. = siehesee the following reference, please refer to .....
s. a. = siehe auch; s. d. = siehe dies, siehe dortsee also
s. o. = siehe obensee above
s. u. = siehe untensee below
SachsenSaxony
Salbunganointing, the action of anointing someone with oil or ointment as a religious rite or as a symbol of investiture as a monarch. in old times it could be meant as a treatment with a medicinal oil or ointment.
sog. = sogenanntso-called
Schäffler, Schaefflercooper
Scheincertificate, bond, banknote
Schenkungen, Schenkunggift, donations
Schindeldeckerroofer (shingles)
Schinnerrenderer; skinner
Schlafbaasinnkeeper
SchlesienSilesia
Schloßcastle, lock (as in the occupation Schloßer which is locksmith)
StraßenN = Straßennamestreet name
Schuleschool
SchwabenSwabia
schwangerpregnant
SchweizSwitzerland
schweiz. = schweizerischSwiss
Sd, S.d. = Sohn desson of
Seelake
Seelensouls
seinto be; his; it's
seitsince
sichhimself, herself, itself
sichhimself, herself, itself
sieshe, they, them, her
Sieyou (formal)
sindare
slaw. = SlawischSlavic
soas, so, thus, such
Sol. = Soldatsoldier
Söldnermercenary soldier; hired soldier
SN = Sippennameclan name
sollenshould
Sta. = Standesamtcivil registry
Staatstate
Staatsangehörigkeitcitizenship
Staatsarchivstate archives
Stadtcity, town
Städtarchivmunicipal archive
Städtischmunicipal
stammlineage, family, tribe, clan
Stammbaumfamily tree, pedigree
stammtcomes from
Standoccupation, status, condition
stattpleace, stead
stattinstead of
stellenplace, put, arrange
sterbento die, perish, pass away
Sterbesakramentenlast rites
Steuertax, contribution
Stiefbruderhalf brother, stepbrother
Stiefschwesterhalf sister, stepsister
Stillgeburtstillbirth
Str. = Strassestreet
Stundehour
Süden, Südsouth
Sv, S.v. = Sohn vonson of
Tabelleindex, table, chart
Tal, Thalvalley
Tau. = Taufebaptism; christening
Taufdatum baptism date; christening date
TN = TaufnameChristian name; baptismal name
typ. = typischtypical
Taufento baptize; to christen
Taufscheinbaptismal certificate
Td, T.d. = Tochter desdaughter of
Testamentwill
Tg = Tagday
ThüringenThuringia
Todesartmanner of death
totgeborenstillbirth
Totgeburtstillbirth
Trauung, Heiratwedding, marriage ceremony
Truhenmacher cabinetmaker
Trz = Trauzeugewitness to marriage; groomsman
TschechischCzech
Tv, T.v. = Tochter vondaughter of
u. = undand
u.d. or ud. = und des, und derand of
u. a. = und andere(s)and others; et al.
u. a. = unter anderemamong other things
ÜN = Übernamenickname
überabout, concerning, over
überlebento live longer than another; outlive
Uhro’clock, clock, watch
umat, about, around, concerning
unbek. = unbekanntunknown, unacquainted with; nameless
UngarnHungary
ung. (ungar.) = ungarischHungarian
unsus, ourself
unterunder, lower
urspr. = ursprünglichoriginally
UnterfrankenLower Franconia
Unterschriebento sign
Unterschriftsignature
usw. = und so weiteretc.
u. v. a. = und viele(s) andereand many others
Unterzeichnetethe undersigned (ex: I the undersigned...)
unverheiratetunmarried
Urkunderecord, document, certificate
Ururgroßmutter, Ur-Urgroßmuttergreat-great-grandmother
Ururgroßvater, Ur-Urgroßvatergreat-great-grandfather
v.m. = verheiratet mitmarried to
Verehelichungmarriage
Verehelichungenmarriage union
vergangenin the past
verlebtedeceased
verlobento become engaged
Verlobungbetrothal, engagement
Vermögenestate, assets
verrichtetperformed
verschiedenevarious
versehenprovide, perform (ex: performed the last rights)
verstorben, verstorbenethe deceased
Verwaltungadministration, management
Verwandtrelated, kin
Verwandtenrelatives, next of kin
Verwandtschaftrelationship; the state of being related
Verzeichnisdirectory, register, index
Vettermale cousin, uncle, nephew
vh. = verheiratetmarried
vielleichtperhaps, maybe
VN = Vorname first name; given name; Christian name; usually given to a child by the parents shortly after birth. It is common to give a child several Vornamen
Vogt (also written Voigt)steward, overseer, bailiff, guardian
Volkszählungcensus
vollzogencompleted
v. = von, vomof, from, by
VölkerN = Völkernamename derived from ethnicity (nationality)
von (in a name)The preposition von ("of") was used to distinguish Nobility; Some times von is also used in geographical names that are not noble
vor. = vorhergehendesprevious
vorinfront of; before; ago
vorherigprevious; preceding; former
vorheriger Tagthe previous day
vgl. = vergleichecompare (to)
vorläufigfor the time being; temporarily
v. a. = vor allemespecially
vormalsformerly; in former times
Vormd. = Vormundguardian
VorpommernWestern Pomerania
Vorstadtsuburbs, outskirts of town
vw. = verwitwetwidowed
Waldforest, woods
wannwhen
Wappencoat of arms
WappenkundeHeraldry
warwas, be
warenwere, products, goods, merchandise
warumwhy
waswhat, which
wegenbecause of; due to
weibl. = weiblichfemale
weil. = weiland (also seen weyland)the deceased; the late (ex: the late Johann Fuchs)
weiß; weisswhite
Weißgerber, weissgerbertanner of fine leather
werwho
werdento become
Westwest
w. = westlichwesterly; western
WestfalenWestphalia
z. B. = zum Beispielfor example
Zs. = Zeitschriftmagazine; periodical
wiehow; such as; like
z. T. = zum Teilsometimes, partially, partly
wiederverh. or wvh. = wiederverheiratetre-married
Wirtinnkeeper
Wlr. = Weilerhamlet
wowhere
Wocheweek
woherfrom where
wohnento live, residing
Wohnort, Wohnplatzplace of residence
wollento want; desire
Wörterbuchdictionary
wurde geborenwas born
wurde getauftwas baptized
würdigworthy; deserving
Wwe. = Witwe; Wittibwidow
Wwr., wwer. = Witwer; Wittiberwidower
Zeittime
Zeugewitness
zgw. = zugewandertimmigrated; moved ( e.g. moved to NY )
Ziehmutterfoster mother
Ziehsohnfoster son
Ziehtochterfoster daughter
Zivilstandsamtcivil registrar's office
zu Hauseat home
Zunamesurname, last name
zus. = zusammentogether; jointly
Zwilling(e)twin, twins
zwischenin between; among