German Word List

Our goal is to not be just another online dictionary, we hope to offer explanations of certain terms to help you better understand the various terms you may come across in your genealogical research. If you have something to offer or see an error, then please contact us.

*Please know that for ease of searching, some words have been typed without special characters, this DOES NOT mean they are correct.

Feel free to start typing a word OR part of a word

GermanEnglish
A. = Amt, Amtsbezirkgovernment office, official district
a.D. = außer Dienst, ausser dienstformerly employed, retired
A.G. = Amtsgerichtlower court, county court
a/d = an der, auf deron the, by the (followed by the name of a river or other geographical feature)
a/n = am Neckaron the "neckar" river, change the name to be that of the river/water
Aalrep, Ahlrep eel fisherman (who uses an Aalreif to catch them)
abfrom, since
Abbauertenant farmer on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm (usually a second son)
Abdeckerskinner
Abendmahlgastcommunicant
aberbut
abgestorbendeceased
Abnahmemannretired farmer on life estate
Abschiedsmannman retired on life estate
Abstreiferrenderer; knacker; flayer; roof-uncoverer
Abt. = Abteilungdepartment
Ackerknechtfarm hand (in service to the farmer)
Ackermannhusbandman, small farmer, farmer (in service to the lord of the manor)
adän. = altdänisch, adan, altdanischOld Danish
Adelgentry, nobleman
Adeliger Edelmannnobleman
Ader, Aderlassersurgeon, barber who did bloodletting from veins
adoptiertadopted
aengl. = altenglischOld English
afries. = altfriesischOld Frisian
afrz. or afranz. = altfranzösischOld French
ahd. = althochdeutschOld High German
Ahnenancestors
Ahnentafelpedigree chart
Akadem. Gradacademic graduate
Aktendocuments
alleall
allhierin this place
altold
Altbürger, Aaltburgerfull citizen
Altbürgermeister, Altburgermeisterformer mayor
altd. = altdeutschOld German
Alterage
Altersschwächeweakness of old age
ältesteldest
Altwendertailor or old clothes merchant
Amman, Ammannbailiff, magistrate
Amtmannmagistrate, provost, warden
Amtsknechtmessenger, servant
Amtsverwalteradministrator
Anbauer, Bauerpeasant
and. = altniederdeutschOld Low German
andereother, next
Angeberinformant
angeblichalleged, assumed
Anh. = Anhaltduchy
Anmerkungen, Bemerkungenremarks
Ansiedl. = Ansiedlersettler
Anspänner, Anspannera farmer who possesses draught-cattle
Anstreicherpainter
Anwaltlawyer, guardian
apoln. = altpolnischOld Polish
Apothekerpharmacist
apreuß. = altpreußisch, altpreuss, altpreussischOld Prussian
Arb. = Arbeiterlaborer, worker
Archivarchive
Archivararchivist
Armerpoor, beggar
aruss. = altrussischOld Russian
Arztphysician
Aschenbrennercharcoal maker (for soap-making)
Asenmacherframe-maker, axle maker
AsfyxieAsphyxia
aslaw. = altslawischOld Slavic
auchalso, too
Auenhaeuslerfree villager with small house and garden and some livestock who usually works as a day laborer; cottager
Auermacherclock maker
aufon, upon, at
Aufenthaltsortresidence
Aufgebotpublication of banns
Aufgebotnotice of intended marriage
Aufnahmebuchbook listing debts
Aufnahmelandcountry to which one immigrated
Aufsehersupervisor
ausfrom, out of
Ausländer, Auslanderforeigner
außen, äußere, aussen, aussereoutside
außerehelich, ausserehelichillegitimate
Auswandereremigrant
Auswanderer, Auswanderungemigrant, emigration
Ausweisidentification document
Auszehrung, Abzehrungconsumption or emaciation (especially from TB)
Auszugextract
B. = Bürger, burgher, Burgercitizen, citizens
B. or Bez. = Bezirk, Distriktdistrict
BA. = Bezirksamtdistrict office
Bäcker, Baecker, backerbaker
Bäckergeselle, BackergeselleBaker, journeyman
Backhausmanncottager
Backmannbaker
Badeort, Bd. = Badspa, health resort
Baderbarber, surgeon
Bankier, Wechslerbanker, money changer
Barbierbarber
Baronruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor
Bartscherebarber
Bauerfarmer on a full sized farm, during serfdom it meant peasant
Baumeistermaster builder, construction supervisor, architect
Baumgärtner, Baumgartnertree nurseryman; forester
BayernBavaria
Bd. = Bandvolume
Beamterofficial, registrar
Beamterpublic official
Bed. = Bedeutungimportance; meaning; significance
beerdigtBuried
BeerdigungenBurial
beg. = begraben, Begräbnisse, BegrabnisseBurial
beglaubigtcertified, attested
Beichteconfession
beideboth
Beisaß, Beisasslay assessor
BeisetzungenBurial
Bekannte(r), Freundacquaintance, friend
Bekehrungconversion
Belegeproof, documentation
Berateradviser or counselor
Berghill, mountain
Bergmannminer
Berufoccupation, profession
bes. = besondersespecially, particularly
Beschreibungdescription
Besemerbroom maker or seller
Besenbinderbroom maker or seller
Besitzerowner, possessor, proprietor
bestätigtconfirmed, verified
bestattetInterred
betr. = betreffendconcerning, regarding, as to
Betriebsleitermanager, superintendent of merchant business
bettlägerig, bettlagerigbedridden
Bettlerbeggar
Bevölkerungsregister, Bevolkerungsregisterpopulation register
bevorstehendpreviously mentioned
Bhf. = Bahnhofrailroad station
Bierbrauerbeer brewer
Biersiederbeer distiller
Bildhauersculptor
Bildschnitzerwood carver
Bindercooper
Biographiebiography
Bischofbishop
BistumBishopric; Diocese
Bkdo. = Bezirkskommandomilitary district command
Blatternsmallpox
Bleicherbleacher
Bleigiesser/nlead smelter
blutendbleeding
BN = Berufsnameoccupational name
Böhmen und Mähren, Bohmen und MahrenBohemia-Moravia
Bootsmannbargeman, boatman
Borngräber, Borngraberwell digger
Botemessenger
Böttcher, Bottchercooper
Brauerbrewer
Bräune, Braunediptheria
BraunschweigBrunswick
Brautbride
Bräutigam, Brautigambridegroom
Briefbotemailman
Briefträger, Brieftragermail carrier
Brücke, Bruckebridge
Brückenzöllner, Bruckenzollnerbridge toll collector
Bruderbrother
Brunnenmeistersupervisor of well construction
Bub, Knabeboy
Bubenmeisterschool teacher
Buchbook
Buchbinderbook binder
Buchdruckerprinter, typographer
Buchhalterbookkeeper
Buchhändlerbook dealer, book seller
Büchsenmacherrifle maker, gunsmith
Büchsenschmied, Büchsenschmid, Buchsenschmied, Buchsenschmidgunsmith
Büdner, Buedner, Budnercottager
bulg. = bulgarischBulgarian
Burgcastle, fortress
Bürge, Buerge, Burgesponsor, guarantor
Bürgerbuch, Burgerbuchcitizen register
Bürgermeister, Burgermeistermayor
Burgmanncastle steward
Büttel, Buettel, Buttelcourt official, jailer
Büttner, Buettner, Buttnercooper
bz. or bzw. = beziehungsweiseor, respectively
ca. = circa, about, approx
Caffamachersatin or velvet weaver
Chirugsurgeon
Clausurmacherclasp maker
Colonistsettler, tenant farmer
copulierento marry
Cossat(e)cottager with little land
d. = der, dem, des, die, dasthe
D. = Dorfvillage
d. h. = das heißt, das heisstthat is; that's called
Dachdeckerroof tiler, thatcher
dän = Dänisch, dan, DanischDanish
das. = daselbstresiding in this place, there, the previously mentioned place
Datumdate
Dechant, Dekandean (church or university)
Dekanatdeanery
derthe, of the
derselbethe same, same as above
Dienerservant
Dienerinmaid servant
dieserthis, these
Domäne, Domanedomain
Doppelnamendouble names (hyphenated names)
dortthere
Drechslerturner, thresher
dt. = DeutschGerman
Duplikatduplicate record
durchthrough
Durchfalldiarrhea
Durchreisenderstranger, transient
E. = Einwohner, inwohnerresidents, population, inhabitant
ebendaat the same place
Ebenistcabinet maker
Eger, Eggerharrower, farmer who used a harrow plow
ehemarried (does not describe the event but the fact that the people are married)
Ehebrecher, Ehebruchadulterer
Ehefr. = Ehefrauwife
Ehehindernishinderance to marriage
ehel. = ehelich, eheleiblichlegitimate
Eheleutemarried couple
ehelich geboren amborn in lawful wedlock on
ehemalsformerly, previously, once
Ehemannhusband
Ehepaarmarried couple
Ehescheidungdivorce
Eheschließung, Eheschliessungmarriage
Eheverkündigungen, Eheverkundigungenmarriage announcement
Eheversprechen, Eheverspruchengagement
Eidam (Eidmann)son-in-law
Eigentümer, Eigentumermale property owner,proprietor
Einbürgerung, Einburgerungnaturalization
einh., einhl = einheimischnative
Einliegerlandless farm laborer, agricultural odd-job worker, who usually rents
living space from a farmer
Einnehmercollector
Einsenderinformant
Eintrag, Eintragungentry
Einwandererimmigrant
Einwanderungimmigration
Einwilligungpermission
einzigeonly
Eis. = Eisenbahnrailroad, train
Eisengiesseriron founder
Eisenhändler, Eisenhandleriron merchant
Eisenschmied, Eisenschmidblack smith
Eiterbeuleabscess
Elsass-Lothringen, Elsaß-LothringenAlsace-Lorraine
Elsass, ElsaßAlsace
Elternparents
engl. = englischEnglish
Enkelgrandson
Enkelingranddaughter
Enkelkindgrandchild
Epilepsieepilepsy
epod., eod. = eodemthe same
erhe
Erbenheirs
Erbschaftinheritance
erhaltenreceived, receive
erklärt, erklartdeclared
Erlassungdispensation, permission
Ermächtigung, Ermachtigungauthorization, warrant
err. = errechnetapproximated
erschienappeared
erstgeborenfirstborn
ertrank, ertrunkendrowned
ErzbistumArchbishopric
erzeugen, erzeugtbeget, bring about, to born a child
Erzgraberore miner
Erziehereducator
esit
evg., Ev., ev. = Evangelische, evangelischEvangelical (Lutheran)
f. = femininfemale
Fabrikantmanufacturer; factory owner, mill owner
Fahnenträger, Fahnentragerflag bearer
Fahnrich, Fähnrichflag bearer (military)
Fahrensmannseaman, seafarer
Faktormanager, superintendent (merchant)
Familiefamily
Familienbuchentries for a family in the Standesamtregister
Familienbuch, Familienregisterfamily register, lineage books
Familienforschunggenealogical research
Familienstandmarital status
Färber, Farberdyer
Faßbinder, Fassbender, Fassbindercooper
Fäule, Faulerot
Fauthbailiff, constable, sheriff
Fayencenhändler, Fayencenhandlerporcelain merchant
Fehlgeburtmiscarriage
Feilenhauerfile maker
Feldhueterfield watchman, field warden
Feldmessersurveyor, one who measures areas of land as an occupation
Feldreiterpoliceman
Festtagfeast day, festival day, holy day
Festungfortress
Feuerwerkerexplosives expert, maker of fireworks
Fieberfever
Findlingfoundling
finn. = finnischFinnish
Firmungconfirmation
Firmungconfirmation
Fischerfisherman
Fl. = Florin, Guldencurrency
Flaschenmacherbottle maker
Fleckenhamlet, also measles or spots
Fleckfieberspotted fever, typhus
Fleischbeschauermeat inspector
Fleischerbutcher
Fleischhauerbutcher
Flickschneidermending tailor
Flösser, Flosserraftsman
Flue = Fluechtling, Flüchtling, Fluchtlingfugitive, refugee, deserter
Fluß, flussriver
FN = Familiennamesurname, family name, last name
folgendefollowing, next
Folterknechtexecutioner, torturer
Forstforest
Förster, Forsterforester
Fourierquartermaster
Fraisenconvulsions, epilepsy, seizures, spasms
FrankenFranconia
FrankreichFrance
Frauwife
Fräulein, FrauleinMiss, unmarried woman
Freibauerfree farmer with only small rent payments
Freiherrruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor
fremdforeign, strange
Fremderstranger
Friedhofcemetary
Friseurbarber, hair dresser
früher, fruherformer, formerly, earlier
frz. (franz) = Französisch, FranzosischFrench
Fuhrmanncoachman, wagoner
für, furfor
Fürst, Furstprince
Fürstenhoff, Furstenhoffroyal court
Fürstentum, Furstentumprincipality
G. = Gerichtcourt
Gadenfrausmall-time merchant, shop owner (fem.)
Gadenmannsmall-time merchant, shop owner (masc.)
Gaedemer, Gädemer, Gademermerchant with a booth
Gardistguardsman
Gärtner, Gartnergardener
Gastwirt; Gastwirthinnkeeper, host, landlord
Gattehusband
Gattin, Ehegattinwife, spouse
Gauklertraveling entertainer, juggler, puppet-player
geb. = geborenmaiden name
geben, gabgiven, gave
Gebietregion, area, zone
Geborene, geborenborn
Gebühren, Gebuhrenfees
Geburt, GeburtenBirth
Geburtsdatumbirth date
Geburtshelfermedical attendant at birth
Geburtsortplace of birth
Geburtsregisterbirth register
Geburtsscheinbirth certificate
Geburtsurkundebirth certificate
gef. = gefallen im Kriegfallen in war
gegenagainst, towards
geheiratetmarried
gehört, gehortbelongs (to)
Gehusterolder (established) farmhand
Geiselercattle merchant; dealer in goats, pigs, other small livestock; sometimes also a butcher
Geistlicherclergyman
Gelbsuchtjaundice
Geldmoney
Geldeinnehmermoney collector
Gem. or Gde. = Gemeindecommunity, municipality, parish, town
Gemeindedienercommunity servant, servant of the mayor
Gemeindemannvillage official, village resident, citizen with full rights
Gemüsegärtner, Gemusegartnermarket gardner, vegetable gardner
Gemüsehändler, Gemusehandlergreen grocer, vegetable grocer
genanntnamed, alias, called
Genealogiegenealogy
GenfGeneva
Gerbertanner
Gerichtsbeisitzerassessor of a town-court, associate judge
Gerichtsdienerservant in the court (under bailiff)
Gerichtsmannjuryman
Gerichtsschreibercourt clerk, court reporter
Gerichtsverwandtermember of the judicial court
gesagtsaid, stated
Geschichtehistory
geschiedendivorced, seperated
Geschlechtgender, sex, lineage
Geschlechterbücher, Geschlechterbucherlineage books, genealogy handbook
Geschlechtsnamefamily name, surname
Geschwistersiblings, brothers and sisters
Geschwulstswelling, tumor
Gesellejourneyman
Gesellschaftsociety, group
Gesetzlaw
gesetzlichlegal
gest. = gestorbendeath
gesternyesterday
get. = getauftbaptized, christened
getr. = getrautmarried
Getrautethe one getting married
Gevattergodfather
Gewänder, Gewaender, Gewanderdealer in fine cloth
Gewerbetrade, occupation
Gewürzkrämer, Gewuerzkraemer, Gewurzkrämergrocer, dealer in spices
Gichtgout, arthritis
Gießer, Giesserfounder, caster, molder
Gildeguild
Gläser, Glaeser, Glaserglazier
Glasmalerpainter on glass
Glaubebelief, faith
gleichsame, alike, similar, right away
Glöckner, Gloeckner, Glocknerbell-ringer, sexton
Gloeckengiesser, Glöckengießer, Glockengiesserbell founder
Goldschmiedgoldsmith
Gr. = Groß, grossGreat (part of place name), big, large
Grafcount (nobleman), earl
Gräfin, Grafincountess
Grafschaftcounty
Greisold man
Grenadierinfantryman
Grhz. = Gross-Herzog, Großherzog, Gh., GhgGrand Duke
Grobschmiedblacksmith
Großeltern, grosselterngrandparents
großjährig, grossjahrigof age
Großmutter, grossmuttergrandmother
Großneffe, gorssneffegreat-nephew
Großnichte, grossnichtegreat-niece
Großvater, grossvatergrandfather
Grundbuchland register
Gurspachterlessee of estate
Gürtler, Gurtlermaker of straps and belts, brass worker
Gutproperty, estate
gutgood
Gutspächter, Gutspachtertennant farmers
Gv = Gerichtsverwandtermember of the local court
H-Nr = Haus Nummer, Haus #house number in the town
habento have
halbhalf
Halbbauerfarmer on a half-sized farm (15 morgen), small farmer
Halbmeierfarmer on a half-sized farm (15 morgen), small farmer
Hammerschmidblacksmith
Händler, handlertrader, merchant, peddler
Handschuhmacherglove maker
Handwerkercraftsman, artisan
Hauercutter, miner
häuf. = häufig, hauf, haufigfrequently, widespread
Haushouse
Hausdienerdomestic servant, porter
Hausfrauhousewife, home maker
Hausgenossehouse mate
Hausiererpeddler
Häusler, hauslercottager, landless laborer
Hausmädchen, Hausmadchenhousemaid
Hausmeistercaretaker
HausN = HausnameHousehold name
hdschr. = handschriftlichhandwritten, in writing
Hebammemidwife
hebr. = hebräisch, hebraischHebrew
Hegergame warden
Heilquellespa, bath
Heimathome, native place, homeland
Heimatscheindomicile or residency certificate
Heimatsorthometown
heir. = Heiratento marry
Heiratsantragmarriage intentions
Heiratsdatumdate of marriage
Heiratskontraktmarriage contracts
Heiratsprotokollemarriage records
Heiratsscheinmarriage certificate
heißt, heisstis named
Heizerstoker, someone who tended to the furnace on a steamship or steam locomotive, a boilerman
Hektarhectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres)
Hemdenmacher, Hemdmachershirt maker
Henkerexecutioner, torturer, hangman
Heraldikheraldry
Herkunftsortplace of origin
Herrsch. = Herrschaftmanor, estate, domain
Herzogduke
HerzoginDuchess
HessenHesse
Heuerlinghireling (day laborer); tenant, renter
heutetoday
Hg. = Herausgeberpublisher; editor
hg. = herausgegebenpublished; edited
hierhere
hiesiger Ortthis place
Hilfsgeistlicherassistant clergyman
Hinterbliebenesurvivors
hinterlassensurviving, left behind
HinterpommernEastern Pomerania
Hirt(e)herdsman, shepherd (also pastor)
Hirtinherder, (female)
hitziges Fieberburning fever, high fever
hl. = heiligholy
HlN or Heil. N. = HeiligennameSaint's name
HN or Herk. N. = Herkunftsnamea name derived from origin (background, place, country, ethnicity)
hochhigh
HochdeutschHigh German; standard German
Hochzeitwedding
Hofcourtyard, farm, yard, estate
Hofdamelady in waiting
HofN = Hofnamefarm or estate name; In rural areas it is/was common that farmers are/were known by the traditional name of their Hof (farm or estate); Many surnames are in fact derived from such Hofnamen, but in some instances, the Hofname tradition survived alongside the official surname. In cases where the surname and Hofname are/were not identical (usually because there was no male heir at some point in the family history) they are joined in official documents by genannt (abbr. gen.), e.g. Amann gen. Behmann.
Hofnarrcourt jester
hold. or holl. = holländisch, hollandischDutch
Holzhändler, Holzhandlerlumber merchant
Holzhauerwood cutter
Hopfenbauerhops farmer
Höpfnerhops farmer
Hornisthorn player
Hptm. = Hauptmanncaptain (military)
Hr. = Herrmaster, mister, lord, gentleman; when used before a name is usually indicated a social status
Hüfner, huefner, Hufnera farmer who owns 1 Hufe of Land. 1 Hufe of Land is approx 30 acres. In general you can say, 1 Hufe was sufficient land where a family can live on
Hufschmiedfarrier (a craftsman who trims and shoes horses' hooves)
Hügel, huegel, Hugelhill
hunderthundred
hurenkindillegitimate, widow
Hustencough
Hutmacher, Hutmacherinhat maker
Hzt. = Herzogtumduchy
i. a. or i. Allg. = im allgemeinenin general, generally
i. d. R. = in der Regelusually; as a rule
i. J. = im Jahrein (the year)
ihr, ihr-their, her
imin the
Imkerbeekeeper
immeralways
inin, at
Inhaltcontent(s)
innerhalbinside of
Innungguild
insges. = insgesamtaltogether; in all
Instmann, Justmanntenant farmer
israelitischIsraelite
istis
J = Jahre altyears old
Jagdgenossehunting assistant/companion
Jäger, Jagerhunter, rifleman in the military
Jahryear
Jahrestaganniversary
jährlich, jahrlichannual, yearly
Jährmann, Jahrmannferryman
Jahrzehntdecade
jeder (jede, jedes)each, every
Jgfr. = Jungfrau, Jungfermaiden, virgin, unmarried woman
Jh. = Jahrhundertcentury
jued = Juedisch, jüdisch, judeJewish
Junggesellebachelor
Jüngling, Junglingteenager, young man
K = Konfirmationconfirmation
K.B. = Kirchenbuchchurch book
K.K. = kaiserlich königlich, kaiserlich koniglichroyal imperial
Kalkbrennerlimeburner (Burned limestone (calcium carbonate) in kilns to produce lime for farmers, quicklime for making mortar and for tanneries to remove hair from hides)
Kammerdienerbutler, valet
Kämmerer, Kammererchamberlain, treasurer
Kammerfraulady-in-waiting
Kammerherrlord in waiting
Kannengiesserpewterer, a manufacturer of pewterware
Kantorchoirmaster, organist
Kanzleibeamterchancery clerk, clerical aide
Kaplanchaplain
Kärcher, Karchercarter, drayman (A drayman was historically the driver of a dray, a low, flat-bed wagon without sides, pulled generally by horses or mules that were used for transport of all kinds of goods)
Kärnten, KarntenCarinthia
Karrercarter, drayman (A drayman was historically the driver of a dray, a low, flat-bed wagon without sides, pulled generally by horses or mules that were used for transport of all kinds of goods)
Kärrner, Karrnercarter, drayman (A drayman was historically the driver of a dray, a low, flat-bed wagon without sides, pulled generally by horses or mules that were used for transport of all kinds of goods)
Kartemap
Karteicard index
Kath. = katholischCatholic
Käthner, Kaethner, Kathnercottager; had a small house with a small piece of land. Most of them would also have had a secondary profession like aday laborer or craftsman; They usually had a plot of land of between an eighth and a half an oxgang (Hufe)
Kätner, Kaetner, Katnercottager; had a small house with a small piece of land. Most of them would also have had a secondary profession like aday laborer or craftsman; They usually had a plot of land of between an eighth and a half an oxgang (Hufe)
Kaufmannmerchant, trades-man
keinno, not any, none
Kellerwine steward; cellar, basement
Kellereiverwalteradministrator of the winecellar
Kellermeisterkeeper of wine cellar
Kellnerwaiter, receiver of revenues; steward
Kerkermeisterjailer
Kerzenzieherchandler, producer of wax candles, candlemaker
Kesslerkettlemaker, boilermaker, coppersmith
Kettenschmiedchainsmith
Keuchhustenwhooping cough
KH. = Knechtservant
Kieferbarrel maker
Kind, Ki. = Kinderchild
Kindbettfieberchildbed fever
Kirchechurch
Kirchenältester, Kirchenaltesterchurch elder
Kirchengemeindecongregation
Kirchenpflegerchurchwarden, church caretaker; term for a person who is a member of the church administration in the management of the assets of a parish (once called a Heiligenpfleger)
Kirchenschöffe, Kirchenschoffechurch alderman
Kirchenvorsteherchurchwarden
kirchlich getrautmarried in church
Kirchspielparish
Kistenmachercrate maker
kleinlittle
Knappea young man, squire (historically it was a young nobleman)
Knechta young man servant (especially of a lower class, employed in coarse hard work)
Köln, Kolncity of Cologne
Kommunikantcommunicant
Kommunioncommunion
König, Koenig, Konigking
Königlich, Koeniglich, Koniglichroyal
Königreich, Koenigreich, Konigreichkingdom
kop. = Kopulationmarriage
Kossate, Kossäte, Kossathecottager; had a small house with a small piece of land. Most of them would also have had a secondary profession like aday laborer or craftsman; They usually had a plot of land of between an eighth and a half an oxgang (Hufe)
Krämpfe, Krampfecramps,, convulsions
Krankheitdisease, sickness
krebscancer
Kriegwar
Kröger, kroeger, Krogerinnkeeper
Krogmanninnkeeper
Krs., Kr. = Kreisdistrict, county
Kt. = KantonCanton (territorial/administrative subdivision in some countries)
Küfer, Kufercooper
Kuhhirte, Kühhirtcowherd
Künstlername, Kunstlernameartist name; Pseudonym
Kurortspa
Kusinefemale cousin
kverm. = kriegsvermisstmissing in the war
l. = linksleft (direction)
Landland, country
Landkartemap
lassento let, leave, allow, give, grant, concede
lat. = lateinisch(e)Latin
lebendigliving
led. = ledigsingle,unmarried
legitimiert, legitimirenmade legitimate, legitimized
Leichecorpse, body
Lenzspring (season)
letzte Ölung, letzte olunglast rites
letzte Salbunglast rites
Letzterlatter, last
letzter Willelast will
lit. = litauischLithuanian
Lungenentzündung, Lungenentzundungpneumonia
Lungenschwindsuchtconsumption, tuberculosis
Luth. = Lutherisch, ProtestantLutheran, Protestant
Lw. = Landwirta farmer, like a skilled tradesman, they had training
m. = maskulinmasculine; male
Mädchengirl, little girl, damsel
Mädelgirl, little girl, damsel
Mägdleingirl, little girl, damsel
Mannhusband, man
männl. = männlich, mannl, mannlich, mannmale
Marktmarket, market-town (burough)
masch. = maschinenschriftlichtyped
Masernmeasles
Matrikelregister (like in churchbook, parish register etc)
MennonitenMennonites
Militär, Militarmilitary
minderjährig, minderjahrigunderaged, minor
mitwith, via, by
Mitgliedmember
Mo. = Monatmonth
morgenmorning (time of day)
Morgenmeasure of land, 0.6 to 0.9 acres; The measurement of a morgen varied from place to place; It's said to have originally meant the amount of land that could be plowed in one morning
mündlich, mundlichverbal, verbally
Muttermother
N = Nord, Nordennorth
n. = nachto, after, according to, went to
n. u. Z. = nach unserer ZeitrechnungAnno Domini
N.N = (Nomen Nescio) Name unbekanntname not known
Nachbarneighbor
Nachbarschaftneighborhood, vicinity
nachgelassensurviving as in the surviving spouse
Nachlaß, nachlassestate, inheritance
nachnamesurname
nächst(e), machst(e)next
Nachtnight
Nbf. = Nebenformvariant
ndld (ndl.; nl.) = niederländisch, niederlandischDutch
nebennext to
Nebenfraumistress, kept woman, secondary wife
Neffenephew
Nervenfiebernervous fever
neunew
Nichtnot
nicht kirchlich getrautmarried but not churched
Nichteniece
nichtsnothing
nienever
niederlower
niederdeutschLow German
nochstill
noch lebendestill living
noch nichtnot yet
Notizennotices
Nottaufeemergency baptism
Nummernumber
nuronly
Nürnberg, NurnbergNuremberg
O = Osteneast
ö. = östlich, o, ostlicheastern; easterly; eastward
o. Ä. = oder Ähnliche(s), oder Ahnliche(s), o. A.or similar
o. J. = ohne Jahrundated; without a year
O.A. = Oberamtgoverning district office
oberupper, over
OberfrankenUpper Franconia
OberpfalzUpper Palatinate
Oberrheinische TiefebeneUpper Rhine valley
od. = oderor
öffentlich bekanntmachen, offentlich bekanntmachenmake known publicly
oftoften
Oheim, Onkeluncle
ohnewithout
ON = Ortsnameplace name
Ortplace, town
Ort der Geburtplace of birth
Ortslexikongazetteer
österr. = österreichisch, osterr, osterreichischAustrian
Österreich, OsterreichAustria
pategodfather
patengodparents
Pestplague
PfalzThe Palatinate
Pfarramtparish office, Rectory
Pfarrbuchchurch book
Pfarreiparish
Pflegekindfoster child
Pflegesohnfoster son
Pflegetochterfoster daughter
Platzplace (location)
Pockenpox, smallpox
poln. = PolnischPolish
Preußisch, PreussischPrussian
Proklamationenmarriage banns
prot. = protestantischProtestant
Provinzprovince
r. = rechtsright
R. = Ruhestandretired
Räbbe, rabberabies
Räcke, rackestiffness of the limbs
Rackerrenderer, skinner, flayer
Rathauscity hall, city hall
RE = Rentenempfängerpensioner
Rechnungaccount; bill
rechtgläubigorthodox
Ref. = ReformiertReformed (evangelical)
Reg.-Bez. = Regierungsbezirkadministrative area (a political jurisdiction)
Registerregister (a book or list)
Reichempire; kingdom
RheinlandRhineland
RheinpfalzRhineland-Palatinate; Rhine Palatinate; Rhenish Palatinate
Rheumarheumatism
RitterKnight
rk. = römisch katholisch, romisch katholischRoman Catholic
RN = Rufnamemany times a child is given multiple names, the one intended for everyday use is known as the Rufname
Röt, rot, roetmeasles; bloody diarrhea
Rtn. = Rentnerretired person, pensioner
Ruhrdysentery
russ. = RussischRussian
Rv. = Rat(h)sverwandtermember of the local town council
S. = Seitepage
s. = siehesee the following reference, please refer to .....
s. a. = siehe auchsee also
s. d. = siehe dies, siehe dortsee also
s. o. = siehe obensee above
s. u. = siehe untensee below
SachsenSaxony
Salbunganointing, the action of anointing someone with oil or ointment as a religious rite or as a symbol of investiture as a monarch. in old times it could be meant as a treatment with a medicinal oil or ointment.
Schäffler, Schaeffler, Schafflercooper
Scharlach, Scharlachfieberscarlet fever
Scheidungdivorce, seperation
Scheincertificate, bond, banknote
Schenkungen, Schenkunggift, donations
Schindeldeckerroofer (shingles)
Schinnerrenderer; skinner
Schlafbaasinnkeeper
Schlaganfallstroke, seizure
Schlagfluß, Schlagflussstroke
SchlesienSilesia
Schloß, Schlosscastle, lock (as in the occupation Schloßer which is locksmith)
Schuleschool
SchwabenSwabia
Schwäche, Schwacheweakness
Schwagerbrother-in-law
Schwägerin, Schwagerinsister-in-law
schwangerpregnant
schwarzer Todblack death; plague
SchweizSwitzerland
schweiz. = schweizerischSwiss
Schwestersister
Schwiegermuttermother-in-law
Schwiegersohnson-in-law
Schwiegertochterdaughter-in-law
Schwiegervaterfather-in-law
Schwindsucht, Zehrungconsumption
Sd, S.d. = Sohn desson of
Seelake
Seelensouls
seinto be; his; it's
seitsince
sichhimself, herself, itself
sieshe, they, them, her
Sieyou (formal)
sindare
slaw. = SlawischSlavic
SN = Sippennameclan name
soas, so, thus, such
sog. = sogenanntso-called
Sol. = Soldatsoldier
Söldner, Soldnermercenary soldier; hired soldier
sollenshould
spur. = spurius, spuriaillegitimate
Sta. = Standesamtcivil registry
Staatstate
Staatsangehörigkeit, Staatsangehorigkeitcitizenship
Staatsarchivstate archives
Stadtcity, town
Städtarchiv, Stadtarchivmunicipal archive
Städtisch, Stadtischmunicipal
stammlineage, family, tribe, clan
Stammbaumfamily tree, pedigree
stammtcomes from
Standoccupation, status, condition
standesamtlich getrautmarried in a civil ceremony
stattpleace, stead
stattinstead of
stellenplace, put, arrange
Sterbefalldead, deceased
sterben, starbto die, to pass away
Sterbesakramentenlast rites
Steuertax, contribution
Stickfluß, Stickflussasthma
Stiefbruderhalf brother, stepbrother
Stiefkindstepchild
Stiefmutterstepmother
Stiefschwesterhalf sister, stepsister
Stiefvaterstepfather
Stillgeburtstillbirth
Str. = Strassestreet
StraßenN = Straßenname, StrassenN, Strassennamestreet name
Stundehour
Suchtsickness, mania, rage
Süden, Süd, Suden, Sudsouth
Sv, S.v. = Sohn vonson of
Tabelleindex, table, chart
Tal, Thalvalley
Tanteaunt
Tau. = Taufebaptism; christening
Taufdatumbaptism date; christening date
Taufento baptize; to christen
taufpatengodparents
Taufpatingodmother
Taufscheinbaptismal certificate
Td, T.d. = Tochter desdaughter of
Testamentwill
Tg = Tagday
Thüringen, ThuringenThuringia
TN = TaufnameChristian name; baptismal name
Tochterdaughter
Tochtermannson-in-law
toddeath, demise
Todesartmanner of death
tot und beerdigtdead and gone
totedeath, dead
totgeborenstillbirth
Totgeburtstillbirth
TP = Taufpategaodfather, sponsor
Trauung, Heiratwedding, marriage ceremony
Truhenmachercabinetmaker
Trz = Trauzeugewitness to marriage; groomsman
TschechischCzech
Tuberkulosetuberculosis
Tumortumor
Tv, T.v. = Tochter vondaughter of
typ. = typischtypical
u. = undand
u. a. = und andere(s)and others; et al.
u. a. = unter anderemamong other things
u. v. a. = und viele(s) andereand many others
u.d. or ud. = und des, und derand of
über, uberabout, concerning, over
überleben, uberlebento live longer than another; outlive
Uhro’clock, clock, watch
umat, about, around, concerning
ÜN = Übername, UN, Ubernamenickname
unbek. = unbekanntunknown, unacquainted with; nameless
unehel. = unehelichillegitimate
ung. (ungar.) = ungarischHungarian
UngarnHungary
ungefähr, ungefahrabout, approx, nearly
unsus, ourself
unterunder, lower
UnterfrankenLower Franconia
Unterleibabdomen
Unterleibsentzündung, Unterleibsentzundungabdominal inflammation, peritonitis
Unterleibstyphustyphoid fever
Unterleibsverhärtung, Unterleibsverhartungabdomenal hardening
Unterschriebento sign
Unterschriftsignature
Unterzeichnetethe undersigned (ex: I the undersigned...)
unverheiratetunmarried
Urenkelkindgreat-grandchild
Urgroßmutter, Urgrossmuttergreat-grandmother
Urgroßvater, Urgrossvatergreat-grandfather
Urkunderecord, document, certificate
urspr. = ursprünglich, ursprunglichoriginally
Ururgroßmutter, Ur-Urgroßmutter, Ururgrossmuttergreat-great-grandmother
Ururgroßvater, Ur-Urgroßvater, Ururgrossvatergreat-great-grandfather
usw. = und so weiteretc.
v. = von, vomof, from, by
v. a. = vor allemespecially
v.m. = verheiratet mitmarried to
Vaterfather
verehelichtmarried
Verehelichungmarriage
Verehelichungenmarriage union
vergangenin the past
vergrabenburied
verh. = verheiratetmarried
Verkündigungenmarriage banns, annunciations, announcement
verl. = verlobtengagement
verlebtedeceased
verlobento become engaged
Verlobter, Verlobtefiancé
Verlobungbetrothal, engagement
Vermögen, Vermogenestate, assets
verrichtetperformed
verschiedenevarious
versehenprovide, perform (ex: performed the last rights)
Verstopfungconstipation
verstorbendeceased
verstorben, verstorbenethe deceased
Verwaltungadministration, management
Verwandtrelated, kin
Verwandtenrelatives, next of kin
Verwandtschaftrelationship; the state of being related
Verzeichnisdirectory, register, index
Vettermale cousin, uncle, nephew
vgl. = vergleichecompare (to)
vh. = verheiratetmarried
vielleichtperhaps, maybe
VN = Vornamefirst name; given name; Christian name; usually given to a child by the parents shortly after birth. It is common to give a child several Vornamen
Vogt (also written Voigt)steward, overseer, bailiff, guardian
VölkerN = Völkername, VolkerN, Volkernamename derived from ethnicity (nationality)
Volkszählung, Volkszahlungcensus
volljährig, volljahrigof age
vollzogencompleted
von (in a name)The preposition von ("of") was used to distinguish Nobility; Some times von is also used in geographical names that are not noble
vorinfront of; before; ago
vor. = vorhergehendesprevious
vorherigprevious; preceding; former
vorheriger Tagthe previous day
vorläufig, vorlaufigfor the time being; temporarily
vormalsformerly; in former times
Vormd. = Vormundguardian
VorpommernWestern Pomerania
Vorstadtsuburbs, outskirts of town
vw. = verwitwetwidowed
w. = westlichwesterly; western
Waiseorphan
Waldforest, woods
wannwhen
Wappencoat of arms
WappenkundeHeraldry
warwas, be
warenwere, products, goods, merchandise
warumwhy
waswhat, which
Wassersuchtdropsy, edema
wegenbecause of; due to
Wehmuttermidwife
Weibfemale, wife
weibl. = weiblichfemale
weil. = weiland (also seen weyland)the deceased; the late (ex: the late Johann Fuchs)
weiß; weisswhite
Weißgerber, weissgerbertanner of fine leather
werwho
werdento become
Westwest
WestfalenWestphalia
wiehow; such as; like
wiederverh. or wvh. = wiederverheiratetre-married
Windpockenchicken pox
Wirtinnkeeper
Wlr. = Weilerhamlet
wowhere
Wocheweek
woherfrom where
wohnento live, residing
Wohnortplace of residence
Wohnplatzdwelling place
Wohnunghome, residence
wollento want; desire
Wörterbuch, worterbuchdictionary
wurde geborenwas born
wurde getauftwas baptized
würdig, wurdigworthy; deserving
Wwe. = Witwe; Wittibwidow
Wwr., wwer. = Witwer; Wittiberwidower
z. B. = zum Beispielfor example
z. T. = zum Teilsometimes, partially, partly
zehrendes Fieberconsumptive fever
Zeittime
Zeugewitness
zgw. = zugewandertimmigrated; moved ( e.g. moved to NY )
Ziehmutterfoster mother
Ziehsohnfoster son
Ziehtochterfoster daughter
Zivilstandsamtcivil registrar's office
Zs. = Zeitschriftmagazine; periodical
zu Hauseat home
Zunamesurname, last name
zus. = zusammentogether; jointly
Zwilling(e)twin, twins
zwischenin between; among